- (Arrow et al. 1995)
- Economic growth, carrying capacity, and the environment, Science, 1995 (Arrow et al. 1995)
- Outlines the origin and current evidence for the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC)
- Asko meeting report
- Economic growth, carrying capacity, and the environment, Science, 1995 (Arrow et al. 1995)
- (Arrow et al. 2004)
- Are we consuming too much (Arrow et al. 2004)
- Journal of Economic Perspectives
- (J. H. Brown et al. 2014)
- Malthusian vs. Darwinian dynamics (i.e. growth and resource limitation vs. organic and cultural selection for innovation to circumvent those)
- Malthusians [population, resource limitation and conflict] vs. Cornucopians [technological innovation to facilitate eternal growth]
- (Hall and Day 2014) call Malthusians - resource constrainists i guess the difference is in whether population or finite resources is seen as the ultimate causal agent.
- (Chen and Ravallion 2007)
Absolute poverty measures for the developing world, 1981-2004
Macroeconomic perspective on monetary poverty globally and in the global regions.
- Trends in population of poor as defind by monetary income.
- Not addressing multidimensional poverty (e.g. sensu UNDP) which may be an important avenue for sustainability science.
Decline in proportion of worlf population under absolute poverty from 1981 to 2004.
Total number of poor is stable or increasing (notably in sub-Saharan Africa).
Finds urbanization of poverty - increasingly poor people are living in the city with incomes defined as poverty.
- (Collier 2007)
Poverty reduction in Africa
- Referencing use
Resource curse (and ethnical diversity, Botswana as a counter case study - it is an outlier in Africa)
Resource efficiency (challenge of turning resouces into personal income in resource rich and ethnically diverse countries)
Real-world economics (perspectives on economic growth and poverty)
Characterization of African economies and case studies
- Efficiency perspective
Quote: “Africa’s current eco-nomic opportunity is its natural resource rents. A disproportionate share of Africa’s population lives in resource-rich countries, and for the foreseeable future commodity prices are going to be high with discoveries skewed toward the region.”
Quote: “It seems that the typical resource-rich countrymight grow faster under autocracy. However, as set out in Human Geography, Africa’s high ethnic diversity makes autocracy damaging: Africa’s resource-rich countries may not have the option of growth through autocracy.”
Quote: “The formof polity that appears to be best suited to ethnically diverse societies with resource rents is a democracy with unusually strong checks and balances and decen- tralized public spending.Howthe government can use power needs to be constrained, rather than simply how it attains power. Botswana demonstrates both that this combination is possible inAfrica and that it is effective in delivering development in resource-rich societies.”
Quote: “Resource-rich societies face a further difficulty during export booms. Globally, during these booms the pace of policy reform slows (18). Hence, societies that have painfully realized that rapid reformis necessary, such as has been the case in Nigeria since 2003, may find that boom conditions remove the sense of urgency from the reform agenda and divert political attention to the contest for spending. Thus, the very conditions in which good policies have their highest pay-off tend to undermine the political process of achieving them.”
Macroeconomic perspective on monetary poverty in Africa.
- The article concludes that the main approach to decreasing poverty should be to grow the economy (in terms of GDP).
- This reveals part of the dichotomies still apparent in sustainability science between researchers grounded in deveopment economics and geography on one hand and the core of sustainablity science, ecosystem services and ecology on the other.
- Underlying cause: Africa’s economies have not been growing (in terms of GDP).
- A role of sustainability sciencr has been to open up the discussion on new measures of (economic) growth.
- They seem not to be integrated in this article from 2007, thus there is still need for further activity, here.
- Internatinoal interventions beyond aid to bring Africa out of poverty
- International society must set out templates for transparent economies (including industry and banking).
- International action to give resource-scarce African countries preferential market access.
- Expand international peacekeeping to prevent internal conflict.
- Overarching resource problem for Africa
- Quote The fourth, and perhaps least tractable problem, is that so much of Africa’s population lives in landlocked, resource-scarce states. I have discussed how, because these states have multiple forms of dependency on neighbors, Africa needs a strong regional political architecture that can internalize these externalities.
- Quote Long-term aid, while targeted toward low-income countries, is currently intended to raise income. The international community has not yet faced the prospect that even with our best efforts these societies are likely to remain low income for a long time.
- (Cowling et al. 2008)
An operational model for mainstreaming ecosystem services for implementation
Conclusion: “At the core of our operational model are three elements: socially relevant, user-inspired research, stakeholder empowerment, and adaptive management embedded in learning organizations. The goal is the achievement of social and ecological resilience in an uncertain world.”
- Can be cited to support claim that parts of sustainability science, namely ecosystem service research, has been socially naive.
- Can be cited to support claim that ecosystem service research has mainly focused on valuation.
- Sustainability science’ role as integrator disciplines, including in principle, finance
- “The activities prescribed by the model will not be easy to implement. Socially engaged, multi- and interdisciplinary re- search is relatively rare. Our process requires a fundamental change, or transformation, in the way research generates knowl- edge (3, 4). Researchers will need to be responsive to stake- holder needs, collaborate with many groups with values and norms foreign to their own, operate as facilitators of knowledge transfer to stakeholders, and be prepared to engage time- consuming processes that are not sympathetic to career aspira- tions and performance benchmarks predicated by the accumu- lation of publications in high-impact journals (7, 90). Moreover, the education philosophies of almost all universities are not conducive to multi- and interdisciplinary research; instead, they encourage the atomization of disciplines and entrench the boundaries between them (4, 58, 91). However, the recent emergence of sustainability science (11) is a very positive development. The operational model presented here provides many opportunities for conducting research on the complex problems inherent in managing social-ecological systems. Rec- ognition of the importance of this research through enhanced funding and status can provide the impetus for its growth.”
Most ecosystem service research has focused on valuation and is not embedded in a social process.
Criticizes focus on monetary valuation. I.e. there are many services where a common monetary currency may not make sense.
Criticizes modus operandi of economic donor organizations in developing countries, which are focused on short term outcomes.
Talks about consumerist economic paradigm and high discounting rates of future events.
- (Golub et al. 2012)
Global climate policy impacts on livestock, land use, livelihoods, and food security.
Explores the potential spatial impact of climate change mitigation policies on food production in Annex 1 countries in non-Annex 1 countries.
In particular, leakage of land use activities into non-Annex 1 countries are explored and resulting GHG emmissions
Economic aspect Spatial ecological impact of policies targeting agricultural economic activities.
(Hall and Day 2014)
- *Title: “Why arent’t contemporary ecologists and economicsts addressing resource and energy scarcity: The major problems of the 21st century”
- Focus: Peak oil and indistural civilization (i.e. energy-intensive, capitalist, growth-oriented, market-driven originally developed in the West).
- Referencing use:
- Industrial civilization paradigm of the West as the economic paradigm that has led to high levels of resource use intensities.
- Sustainability-oriented research has not addressed issues of population, energy and key resources (e.g. metals).
- Resource issues emerged due to growth in the population and in the economy.
- Sustainability science - blind spots in the natural sciences.
- All too often the idea of sustainability is conflated with the idea of “green”
- Sustainability cience does not deal with the growth paradigm and the energy intensive society
- (J. R. Burger et al. 2012) Burger et al 2012 found that sustainability research (23,535 published papers) more commonly used words like “development” and “economics” than “ecology” and “ecological” and even less often “thermodynamic” & “steady state”.
- Important to remain open about economic paradigms since “the success of the neo-classical economic paradigm may have been conflated with the access to large amount of high quality energy resources and metals*. E.g. (paraphrasing) even communism in the 70’s under high degree of resource access looked to be an ecnoomically viable strategy.
- Research question: Is neoclassical ecnomics able to deal with issues of resource scarcity and population and in particular degradation of natural systems.
- Gowdy et al. 2004: This is due to a misassessment of the role of nature in the economy
- Externalization of pollution effects
- Characterizing depletion of resources as current income
- Assuming that natural capital, social (i.e. human) capital, and financial capital are absolute susbstitutes for one another.
- Gowdy et al. 2004: This is due to a misassessment of the role of nature in the economy
- Asks question: Why aren’t contemporary ecologists and economicsts addressing energy and resource scarcity
- Claims: Energy and resource scarcity are “the major problems of the 21st century”
- Intractable problems are caused by - population, resource scarcity, impact economy
- PSJ: Couldn’t this be flipped on its head - the economic system is causing resource scarcity?
- Problems already identified in the 1950s, 60s, 70s
- Scarcity of cheap high-quality energy
- The crux: THESE PROBLEMS ARE FUNDAMENTALLY ECOLOGICAL AS THEY HAVE TO DO WITH RELATION BETWEEN AN ORGANISM AND ITS ESSENTIAL RESOURCES
Observation (unreferenced): Ecologists rarely address resource scarcity in a human context
- Scholars that pioneered resource scarcity work:
- US ecologists - Garrett Hardin, Paul Ehrlich, Eugene Odum and Howard Odum, David Pimentel, Kenneth Watt
- US economists - Kenneth Boulding, Herman Daly
- US computer scientists - Jay Forrester, Dennis Meadows, Donnella Meadows
- Question: Has technology and market economics solved and invalidated the specific and general predictions of the limits to growth model?
- After a period of much attention, the issue of humans and global resources disappeared from most teachning, research and public discourse - ESPECIALLY IN ECOLOGY WAS THIS PERVASIVE
- Claim: Ecologists today are rarely concerned with global resource scarcity and are often unaware of global resource issues.
- Claim (referenced): There has been a movement to marginalize poopulation growth
- Bartlett 1998 - Social Contract - The massive movement to marginalize the modern Malthusian message
- Claim: Failure of contemporary thnkers including “sustainability” researchers to address energy (oil), resources (metals) and population.
- This Failure will be known to future generations as “grand folly”
- Resource constranist (Malthusian) references to check out:
- HT Odum, “Environment, Power and Society” (1971)
- Ecological laws and laws of energy apply to ALL organisms
- Meadows “Limits to Growth” (1972)
- Decline in quality of life and even population size
- Hubbert “Energy resources” in “Resources and man” (1969)
- Peak US (conventional) oil production in 1970
- Glbal peak conventional oil production in 2000s (first decade of 21st century)
- HT Odum, “Environment, Power and Society” (1971)
- Resource issues up until early 1970’s
- Malthus 1778 considered the first to raise the issue of resource constrains
- The failure of his prediction due to discovery of oil and application to agriculture which allowed food production to follow with population growth.
- It could be argued that this observations is consistent with the human ingenuity, resource substitution and technological innovation argument of Cornucopians
- Increasing, then vaining interest in resource constraints
- Oil crists of the seventies sparked interest in issues of resource constraints
- US started importing oil from the Middle East in the 1980’s in resopnse to oil shortages.
- “Economists became leaders in addressing resource issues”
- Turning away from constraintist issues
- Observation (unreferenced): In the 1970’s and 1980’s ecology turned away from human issues and focused on natural populations, communities, ecosystems.
- PSJ: This must have been a big line and focus of research before. So it was a similarly dynamics seen in economics where a mainstreaming and decrease in diversity of issues and methods took place.
- As the population and economy grew, a number of resource issues emerged.
- Depletion of highest quality fuels
- The intellectural bakruptcy of conventional neoclassical economics and its inabilities to resolve or even understand the issues of depletion
- Degradation of natural systems
- Loss of goods and services from natural systems
- Climate change
- (Unsustainable poopulation growth)
Issues with neo-classical economics
- Why are ecology and economics not addressing these problems?
- Not because constrainists were wrong or because their work was not well-known.
- Neo-classical economics in becoming the dominant paradigm in political economy has decreased the role of resource issues in decision making
- Ecologists are no llonger trained to think that resource constraints are important or within their puriew
- Increasing academic specialization is leading to increasing academic fragmentation
- Ecologists have taken up residence in biology departments
- Ecologists should be among te most integrative and interdisiplinary of scientists.
- The tenure system discourages young faculty from taking on broad, systems oriented problems.
- Similar things can be said about funding agencies.
- Resource and population problems do not fit comfortably within any academic discipline.
- The publications that are avaiablel are generally in the form of books directed toward broad audiences
- Mainstram scientific publications about these issues remain rare.
- (Herrero et al. 2013)
Biomass use, production, feed efficiencies, and greenhouse gas emissions from global livestock systems
Efficiency perspective “feed efficiency as a key driver of productivity, resource use, and greenhouse gas emission intensities, with vast differences between production systems and animal products”
Economic perspective Economic impact of livestock production.
- (Hyden 2007)
Governance and poverty reduction in Africa
Quote: “prevailing assumptions in the international development policy community about improved governance as a principal mechanism to reduce poverty in Africa rests more on faith than science”
Poverty reduction mechanisms
Important citation - current economic models do not account for large swath of poor that are outside the market (informal economy). The informal economy may be an area that sustainability science has done well in tackling, but to make an impact it seems it eeds integration with existin economic models. Thus both groups have to approach each other.
- Diverging views between social scientists and economists on governance (in poverty reduction context)
- If sustainability science currently reflects views of one of these groups more, then that emphasizes the need for integrating the two in sustainability science, thus a need for integrating economics as well as other social sciences further.
“Conventional policy models for tackling poverty fail to take into account the peculiar socioeconomic and political conditions in Africa, where the vast majority of those living on one dollar a day or less are only marginally captured by market and state institutions and instead rely on solving their problems ’’outside the system.”
“Economists continue to dominate the international development policy agenda. Another is that political scientists have typically looked at how economic variables shape political ones, rather than the other way around, as implied in the current governance agenda”
Has sustainability science done better at integrating political science (or vice versa) than economics?
(Robert W Kates and Dasgupta 2007)
African poverty: A grand challenge for sustainability science
Introduction to special issue on poverty reduction
all developing country regions have shown marked improvement in key indicators of poverty, health, economy, and food, except for sub-Saharan Africa
- (R. W. Kates, Travis, and Wilbanks 2012)
Transformational adaptation when incremental adaptations to climate change are insufficien
Outlier / first mover perspective Importance of transformational change and of having examples of transformations. Importancr of initiating research into transformations (as e.g. through macroecological studies to identify outliers for further study).
- (Lenzen et al. 2012)
- “Our findings clearly demonstrate that local trheats to species are driven by economic activity and consumer demand across the world.”
- (Morgan 2014)
“Use (and abuse) of expert elicitation in support of decision making for public policy”
- (Naylor et al. 2009)
Feeding aquaculture in an era of finite resources
Efficiency perspective Trends in efficiency of farmed fish production relative to input of harvested wild fish.
Economic perspective The role of regulation and economic incentives, relative prices and consumer choices/acceptance for determining use of more environmentally friendly feed sources in agriculture.
- (Perry, Grace, and Sones 2011)
Current drivers and future directions of global livestock disease disease dynamics
Economic perspective Comparison of trends between in ecological trends between rich and pooe counties - more specifically: Divergent trends of animal health between poor and rich countries (improving in rich, deteriorating in poor).
- (Sayer et al. 2013)
Ten principles for a landscape approach to reconciling agriculture, conservation, and other competing land uses
Economic perspective: Managing land to achieve economic (and other) outcomes. The landscape as a tool to achieve and reconcile multiple objectives. Institutional and governance concerns are raised as constraints, but not with reference to influence of finance.
- (Sidle et al. 2013)
- Broader perspective on ecosystem sustainability: Consequences for decision making
Arrow, Kenneth, Bert Bolin, Robert Costanza, Partha Dasgupta, Carl Folke, C. S. Holling, Bengt Owe Jansson, et al. 1995. “Economic growth, carrying capacity, and the environment.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 28: 520–21. doi:10.1126/science.268.5210.520.
Arrow, Kenneth, Partha Dasgupta, Lawrence Goulder, Gretchen Daily, Paul Ehrlich, Geoffrey Heal, Simon Levin, Karl-Göran Mäler, Stephen Schneider, and David Starrett. 2004. “Are we consuming too much?” The Journal of Economic Perspectives 18 (3): 147–72. doi:10.1111/j.1523-1739.2007.00770.x.
Brown, James H, Joseph R Burger, William R Burnside, Michael Chang, Ana D Davidson, Trevor S Fristoe, Marcus J Hamilton, et al. 2014. “Macroecology Meets Macroeconomics: Resource Scarcity and Global Sustainability.” Ecological Engineering 65 (April). Elsevier B.V.: 24–32. doi:10.1016/j.ecoleng.2013.07.071.
Burger, Joseph R., Craig D. Allen, James H. Brown, William R. Burnside, Ana D. Davidson, Trevor S. Fristoe, Marcus J. Hamilton, et al. 2012. “The Macroecology of Sustainability.” Edited by Georgina M. Mace. PLoS Biology 10 (6). Public Library of Science: e1001345. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1001345.
Chen, Shaohua, and Martin Ravallion. 2007. “Absolute poverty measures for the developing world, 1981-2004.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 104 (43): 16757–62. doi:10.1073/pnas.0702930104.
Collier, Paul. 2007. “Poverty reduction in Africa.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 104 (43): 16763–68. doi:10.1073/pnas.0611702104.
Cowling, Richard M, Benis Egoh, Andrew T Knight, Patrick J O’Farrell, Belinda Reyers, Mathieu Rouget, Dirk J Roux, Adam Welz, and Angelika Wilhelm-Rechman. 2008. “An operational model for mainstreaming ecosystem services for implementation.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 105 (28): 9483–88. doi:10.1073/pnas.0706559105.
Golub, a. a., B. B. Henderson, T. W. Hertel, P. J. Gerber, S. K. Rose, and B. Sohngen. 2012. “Global climate policy impacts on livestock, land use, livelihoods, and food security.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 110 (52). doi:10.1073/pnas.1108772109.
Hall, Charles A. S., and John W. Day. 2014. “Why aren’t contemporary ecologists and economists addressing resource and energy scarcity: The major problems of the 21st century?” Ecological Engineering 65 (April): 49–53. doi:10.1016/j.ecoleng.2013.12.020.
Herrero, Mario, Petr Havlík, Hugo Valin, An Notenbaert, Mariana C Rufino, Philip K Thornton, Michael Blümmel, Franz Weiss, Delia Grace, and Michael Obersteiner. 2013. “Biomass use, production, feed efficiencies, and greenhouse gas emissions from global livestock systems.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 110 (52): 20888–93. doi:10.1073/pnas.1308149110.
Hyden, Goran. 2007. “Governance and poverty reduction in Africa.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 104 (43): 16751–56. doi:10.1073/pnas.0700696104.
Kates, R. W., W. R. Travis, and T. J. Wilbanks. 2012. “Transformational adaptation when incremental adaptations to climate change are insufficient.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 109 (19): 7156–61. doi:10.1073/pnas.1115521109.
Kates, Robert W, and Partha Dasgupta. 2007. “African poverty: a grand challenge for sustainability science.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 104 (43): 16747–50. doi:10.1073/pnas.0708566104.
Lenzen, M., D. Moran, K. Kanemoto, B. Foran, L. Lobefaro, and A. Geschke. 2012. “International trade drives biodiversity threats in developing nations.” Nature 486 (7401). Nature Publishing Group: 109–12. doi:10.1038/nature11145.
Morgan, M Granger. 2014. “Use (and abuse) of expert elicitation in support of decision making for public policy.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 111 (20): 7176–84. doi:10.1073/pnas.1319946111.
Naylor, Rosamond L, Ronald W Hardy, Dominique P Bureau, Alice Chiu, Matthew Elliott, Anthony P Farrell, Ian Forster, et al. 2009. “Feeding aquaculture in an era of finite resources.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106 (36): 15103–10. doi:10.1073/pnas.0910577106.
Perry, B. D., D. Grace, and K. Sones. 2011. “Livestock and Global Change Special Feature: Current drivers and future directions of global livestock disease dynamics.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 110 (52): 20871–77. doi:10.1073/pnas.1012953108.
Sayer, Jeffrey, Terry Sunderland, Jaboury Ghazoul, Jean-Laurent Pfund, Douglas Sheil, Erik Meijaard, Michelle Venter, et al. 2013. “Ten principles for a landscape approach to reconciling agriculture, conservation, and other competing land uses.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 110 (21): 8349–56. doi:10.1073/pnas.1210595110.
Sidle, Roy C, William H Benson, John F Carriger, and Toshitaka Kamai. 2013. “Broader perspective on ecosystem sustainability: consequences for decision making.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 110 (23): 9201–8. doi:10.1073/pnas.1302328110.